Tuesday, April 26, 2011

Why Revision of AACR1 of 1967 was neccesary:the extent reflected in AACR2.

Question: what were the objectives of revising AACR1 of 1967 and show the extent to which they reflected in AACR2
INTRODUCTION
A cataloguing code is basically a set of rules for guidance of a cataloguer in establishing headings and preparing entries for a catalogue. Cataloguing codes have evolved from being shallow in description- i.e. covering only a few areas- to coverage of many areas and using more detailed rules for description.
Among other cataloguing codes Anglo-American cataloguing rules(AACR) 1967 was as a result of evolving of AA(1908) and ALA 1949. the major loophole of the AACR1967 is it being published in two different texts. i.e. North American text and British text. Certain developments after the publishing of AACR 1967 pointed/prompted/necessited the desirability for its revision.
The first development was the rapid progress toward the formulation of international standards for the description of monographs, serials and other media indicated need for revision so that the code will facilitate the effort to promote international exchange of bibliographic data. second development was the need to have rules that will cater for non book material. The third reason was to address the divergence of points between the separate north American text and the British text. Another goal was top make the code more in tune to computer capabilities. Also the announcement by the library of congress of its intention to abandon the policy of superimposition prompted for its revision.
A memorandum of agreement of 1966 between the American library association and library association provided a means of continuing revision by these two bodies of the AACR 1967 texts of publications so that appropriate action by amendment and addition may be taken, to deal with any problems encountered by users on account either of errors and ambiguities or of changing circumstances.
On initiatives of American library association and library association there took place at American library association(ALA) headquarters in Chicago march 1974, a tripartite meeting mandated to draw up a new memorandum of agreement and to complete the planning of the project for the second edition of AACR. Among others, four major principals/objectives were established in the new memorandum of agreement (tripartite meeting) and also set up Joint steering committee of AACR(JSCAACR) which was mandated the duty of revising AACR.
OBJECTIVES AND THE EXTENT TO WHICH THEY ARE REFLECTED.
1.To reconcile in a single text the North American and British text of 1967.
During the three years before the 2nd world war, the British and Americans had started preparations for a revised AA code, but the British then became preoccupied with a rather larger international event, with the result that the revision emerged as an ALA draft. Similarly separate texts of AACR1(1967) were published. i.e. north American text and British text with notable divergence in the separate texts. In the process of reconciling the north American and the British texts, it was decided to use British spelling of words if the British spelling appears, As an alternative in Webster’s third new international dictionary of the language unabridged. In cases where terminologies differs, British usages were chosen in some case ( e.g. full stop instead of period)/ while American usages appear in other cases e.g. parenthesis instead of the British brackets.
Also chapters 6,12 and 14 of AACR north American text were revised so as to move hand in hand with the British text. i.e. rules on separately published monographs, audiovisual media& special institutional material and sound recordings.
Another change important to note was to use a firmly established English form of name rather than the vernacular from for many well known names e.g. Horace instead of its original Greek form Horiatis.
2.To incorporate in the single text all amendments and changes that has already been agreed and implemented under the previous mechanisms.
After the establishment of the joint steering committee for AACR it was considered appropriate and fundamental to incorporate in the single text all amendments and changes that had already been agreed on and implemented. One of the major changes that had already been done/agreed on was removal of the policy of superimposition. This was after the library of congress (LC) had threatened/ announced its intention to abandon the policy as a measure towards the development of itself(LC). This eased the fear of research libraries to a great extent and also non book material authors. Among other agreements that had been agreed on include, agreement in choice of access points and necessity to base entry of work on the statement that appears on the title page.
3.To consider for inclusion in AACR all proposal for amendment currently under discussion.
Despite the many changes and amendments that had already been done on AACR, it was still necessary for the JSCAACR to sit again- on a round table-and consider for inclusion numerous proposals that had been forwarded by different library associations and also by various intellectuals/scholars. One major justification of their meeting was the fact that the universe of knowledge was experiencing information explosion. Everyday new documents/publications were released each posing a extra challenge to cataloguers considering that many/all literature released were totally different in terms of intellectual property/specific subject matter. It had already been agreed that rules for cataloguing would be relatively simple, partly because they would not attempt to cover exceptional and unusual cases. Non essentials would be given little or no attention and cataloguers will be expected to use their judgment but not to expect a rule or a precedent to guide them at all time. another major agreement was cataloguing of work based on intellectual responsibility rather than types of work or any other type of work that is used as its substitute.. i.e. classes of names rather than classes of people. Another important area of change was in the form of entry for corporate bodies.
4.To provide international interest in AACR by facilitating its use in other countries other than the United States, Canada and the United Kingdom.
a set of rules named “ Paris principles” had been formulated at the international conference on cataloguing principles held in Paris (1961). Also the international standards for bibliographic description (ISBD). Were written after the international meeting of cataloguing experts held in Copen Hagen, Denmark under the aegis of international federation of library associations (IFLA). Perhaps the most significant change was the application of international standards of description based on ISBD, to descriptive monographs, audio-visual media, and special instructional materials. ISBD facilitates the international exchange of bibliographic data/description, assigning an order of these elements in the entry and specifying a system of symbols to be used in punctuating these elements.

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